摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

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摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

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摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

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摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

特殊的缘分认识了行走于北京大大小小咖啡馆之间,并且跟我们一样致力于将更多有趣的咖啡馆推广给更多的人的意大利人Marco。来到北京之前,Marco的咖啡之旅开始于外祖母经营的位于英国巴斯的餐厅后厨,也在爱丁堡的星巴克工作过,还在爱尔兰经营过一家小的咖啡店和咖啡豆烘焙工厂。在追随夫人来到北京之前,在新西兰开了一家烹饪学校,学校中也有咖啡店和餐厅。

来到北京之后,Marco创立了自己的网站blackwhitefilter(https://www.bwfbeijing.com),一个完全不会说中文的意大利人,用心地喝遍自己找到的每一家独立咖啡店,拍照片,写文章,一篇一篇放在网站上。他告诉我,他希望那些跟他一样不懂中文的外国人可以看到北京的咖啡馆们有多美好。

“这里有这么多好喝的咖啡,如果没人能找到,那就太可惜了!”

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

Marco的网站

作为一个外国人,Marco说自己非常幸运地在这个时间来到北京,见证了北京咖啡文化的蓬勃发展,也见证了很多变故,更是见证了北京的咖啡人们在各种外力阻碍下坚韧不拔的动人张力,他愿意也希望把这种精神传递给更多的人,把这些美好的咖啡人和那一次次喝到好喝咖啡的感动传递给更多的人。

作为每一个意大利人厨房中的必需品,摩卡壶在Marco生活中的意义非同一般,不过他现在也在适应和学习很多其他的冲煮方法,从不同的角度体验咖啡的美。

摩卡壶的名字来源于也门的摩卡咖啡,而摩卡咖啡的故事可以在这篇文章里看到《再见摩卡 | 沉睡的古老咖啡秘境》

HISTORY + DESIGN

历史&产品设计

The moka pot, also known as stove top or caffettiera (literally, coffee maker), is the most recognisable Italiancoffee machine for home. Invented in 1933 by Alfonso Bialetti, it is now part of the morning routine of millions of Italians and many more in Spain, Portugal, and parts of South America (where is also know as theNeapolitanorItalian coffee maker).

摩卡壶,也叫蒸汽冲煮式咖啡壶,是意大利家用咖啡器具中最广为人知的冲煮器具。Alfonso Bialetti于1933年发明了摩卡壶,现在摩卡壶已经成为在意大利、西班牙、葡萄牙和部分南美洲的人每天早上都会使用的工具。

The name comes from the city of Mokha in Yemen, one of the first and most renown places of coffee production, particularly of Arabica beans.

摩卡壶的取名源自也门城市摩卡,摩卡也是最出名的阿拉比卡咖啡豆产区之一。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

To this day the moka pot has almost retained its original design. Its trademark octagonalshape, made in aluminium, represents the most recognisable trait of its industrial concept, permanently on display atMOMAin New York.

直到今天,摩卡壶也依然几乎完全保留了它的原始设计。第一个铝制的摩卡壶(现多用合金),有着标志性的八角形设计,代表了它最为广为人知的工业理念,现永久陈列于纽约曼哈顿的现代艺术博物馆

In designing the moka pot Bialetti was inspired by the washing machinesof the time, which operated with a bottom tank filled with water that was heated and then passed through holes into the top tank.

Bialetti当初设计摩卡壶的灵感来源于家用洗衣机。当时的洗衣机中间有一根金属管,将加热后的肥皂水从洗衣机的底部吸上来再喷到衣服的上方。

The moka pot is similarly designed, and its main parts are: a bottom chamber (or boiler) with a pressure valve, a funnel-shaped metal filter for the coffee grounds, a rubber seal, a top chamber (or collector) with a metal filter at the bottom, a central column for the coffee to pass through, and a Bakelite (a heat resistant plastic) handle.

摩卡壶设计非常简洁,主要的部分包括:装置有压力阀的底壶(煮沸装置),用于盛放咖啡粉末的漏斗状金属滤网,橡胶封条,装置有连通底部金属过滤器的顶壶(收集装置),供咖啡通过的中央管路,和电木(热稳定材料)把手。

Moka pots come in different sizes, from the most recent and smallest 40mLto the largest size that makes18 cups. The most commonly used brew1 or 3 cups of coffee, consisting of about 80% of the market.

现在市面上有各种容量的摩卡壶,从最新发行的40ml的最小容量到最大可以做18杯咖啡的容量。最常用的是一次可以做1到3杯咖啡的摩卡壶,现在市场上流通的有约80%都是这一容量的摩卡壶。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

BREWING COFFEE

冲煮过程

The boiler is filled with cold water half way up to the pressure valve. Warm water can be used to make the process faster, while hot water is not recommended. The funnel-shaped filter is filled with finely ground coffee (between 20 and 22 grams, ground as fine as for espresso), which is not hardly pressed but just piled on. The top chamber is then screwed on and the moka is placed on medium to low flame (or electric stove at minimum). If on a gas stove, the flame should be at the most as large as the base of the mocha pot. The top lid can be left open, in order to see and especially hear when the coffee starts spouting out.

向底壶中注入少于半壶的冷水(虽然热水可以加快冲煮速度但并不推荐)。在漏斗状的金属滤网中填充研磨好的咖啡粉(20-22g,研磨度等同于意式浓缩的研磨度)。然后安上顶壶,将摩卡壶放置于低至中火火焰的煤气炉(或调制最低档的电磁炉)上。如果置于煤气炉上,火焰应该正好可以充分接触壶底。壶盖可以向左开启,谨防内压过大导致咖啡溢出。

After 4 to 5 minutesthe water slowly starts boiling, creating steam in the lower chamber, and at this stage the pressure valve and the rubber seal make sure that nothing leaks out or the pressure gets too high. Eventually the pressure is high enough (between 1 to 2 bars) to push the water through the funnel-shaped filter and into the ground coffee. The water never reaches more than 90C, like in other most common brewing methods. The process of passing through the grounds and producing liquid coffee is calledpercolation.

4至5分钟后壶中水开始缓慢沸腾,在壶中较低处产生蒸汽,此时应注意压力阀门和橡胶封条的状态以保证密封完全、没有漏液否则气压将会过高。最终压力足够高(介于0.1到0.2兆帕之间)时将会挤压热水通过金属滤网中的咖啡粉。与其他常见的冲煮方法一样,水温不会超过90℃。这个水通过咖啡粉产生咖啡液的过程叫做浸透(percolation)。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

When the lower chamber is empty, the coffee starts bubbling through the collector chamber, a phase aptly name ‘strombolian’, after the Stromboli volcano. It is recommended to lower the heat down, to prevent the coffee spilling out too quickly and also to avoid burning it, producing an undesirable taste. It is also time to close the top lid (to prevent the coffee from spilling everywhere), and once most of the top chamber is full to turn the heat off – the process will continue until all the coffee has come through. To get an even brew, it is also recommended tostir the coffeebefore pouring, so to mix the (possibly) stronger coffee that comes out first with the coffee brewed last.

当底壶空了之后,咖啡将开始进入顶壶,这个过程叫做喷发过程(strombolian),取名自stromboli火山。此时建议降低温度防止咖啡溢出过快,和煮焦而产生不愉悦的味道。此时应注意盖好盖子(防止咖啡四处飞溅),当顶壶将要被充满时关闭热源——整个过程会持续至所有的咖啡进入上壶。为了达到冲煮均匀充分、口感平衡,建议在倒出之前晃动壶身

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

MOKA POT COFFEE CHARACTERISTICS

摩卡壶煮咖啡的特点

As for other brewing methods, the taste of the coffee produced with a moka pot depends on the type of beans used, the roast level, the finesse of the grind, the water profile, and the level of heat used.

与其他冲煮方法一样,摩卡壶煮的咖啡的口味主要取决于咖啡豆的品种、烘焙度、研磨度、水质和水温。

In Italy the beans most widely used are 100% Arabica, coming mainly from Brazil and Colombia, and are dark roasted(but not as dark as a French roast). This gives a strong nutty taste, almost chocolatey, with a long finish and a slightly bitter aftertaste. It is also fundamentally important that the beans are not ground too long before they go into the moka – the fresher the beans, the more flavoursome the coffee. Pre-ground coffee needs to be stored in a cool, dark place, preferably in an air-tight, dry and moisture-proof container.

在意大利,人们通常都是选用100%阿拉比卡咖啡豆,以巴西和哥伦比亚产区较为常见,而且意大利人偏爱深烘(没有法式烘焙那么深)的咖啡豆。这样的组合给了咖啡较为突出的坚果风味和巧克力味,回味悠长并且伴有微苦的余味。当然非常基本的常识是磨好之后的豆子不要放置太久——咖啡豆越新鲜,风味越明显。磨好后的咖啡粉需要被储存在凉爽并且无光照的地方,最好是存储于真空、干燥、防潮的容器中。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

The finesse of the grind effectsthe results in two ways, in the same way it does for any other brewing method: if too fine, the water will struggle to pass through and the coffee will be bitter and possibly burnt; if too coarse, water will run through too fast, and the resulting coffee will be weak and bland. Tampering the coffee too hard in the filter can also cause clogging and an increased pressure, which can be dangerous.

合适的研磨度主要在两个方面对咖啡产生影响,也适用于其他冲煮方式:如果研磨得过细,水很难顺畅地通过咖啡粉导致咖啡呈现焦苦味。如果研磨颗粒过粗,会导致萃取不足,风味不明显,寡淡无味。如果过于用力地压过滤器中的咖啡粉也有可能导致阻塞过滤器并且会增加压力,这也是非常危险的操作。

The quality of the water used also affects the results, so it is recommended to use cold filtered water. Warm filtered water can be used as well, as in some cases it might avoid over heating the grounds and over extracting.

水质也会影响最终结果,所以建议使用冷的蒸馏水,温的的蒸馏水也比较推荐,因为有时可以避免过萃。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

The level of heat used in the brewing process also affects the coffee. If the flame is too high the brewing will be too quick, resulting in a coffee that lacks depth of flavour, as the ideal temperature is reached quickly but passed before the entire brewing process is completed. A high flame could also lead to melting the rubber seal. If the flame is too low, the process might take too long, possibly affecting the coffee by giving it a burnt aftertaste. Once the coffee is ready, it also important to take the moka off the heat, to avoid the coffee to ‘boil over’.

萃取过程中的温度也会影响咖啡的口感。如果火焰太热冲煮过程过快,会导致咖啡的风味缺乏发展性,这是因为这样会在整个冲煮过程完全完成之前过快达到最终的理想温度。过高的焰温还会使橡胶封条融解。如果焰温过低,完成整个冲煮过程可能需要太长时间,很有可能让咖啡产生焦苦的后味。最后,咖啡煮好后,注意及时将摩卡壶远离火焰,避免咖啡沸腾溢出。

The coffee extracted by a mocha pot generally has more caffeine than drip coffee, despite the smaller dwell time (the extraction contact time with water). A small layer of crema(the flavoursome, aromatic, brownish froth formed when air bubbles combine with fine-ground coffee’s oils) can also be created, depending on the beans and grind used.

相比手冲咖啡,尽管摩卡壶的萃取时间更短,摩卡壶出本的咖啡基本上含有更多的咖啡因。根据不同的咖啡豆和研磨度,摩卡壶出品的咖啡也有可能拥有意式浓缩表面会有的crema(蒸汽泡沫与研磨后产生的咖啡油脂相结合时,产生的丰富口感的、芳香的、淡淡棕色的致密泡沫油脂表面)。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

MAINTENANCE AND TIPS

保养与维护

Before using a moka pot for the first time, it is recommended to season it with a couple of rounds with just water, and a couple with old coffee to be discarded. This also cleans the moka pot of any residual materials from the factory, eliminating the risk of adding a metal taste to the coffee.

在使用新的摩卡壶前,建议用水冲洗几次,再用咖啡冲洗几次。这样可以清洗掉摩卡壶生产中残留的有害物质,消除喝到带有金属味咖啡的风险。

Between brews the moka pot should be cleaned only with hot water and not with any detergent, to avoid the removal of the internal protective layer of the chambers that could lead to unwanted flavours being passed onto the coffee. Washing the moka pot in the dishwater is also not recommended, as the sodium present in the dishwashing liquid can deteriorate the protective layer and create corrosion, especially damaging the aluminium parts.

清洗摩卡壶时应该避免使用任何清洁剂,而是仅使用热水冲洗,避免除去壶内的保护层导致咖啡中混入任何不良物质。同样也不建议用洗洁精来清洗摩卡壶,因为洗洁精将会溶解壶内的保护层并且导致金属氧化腐蚀,特别是对铝制部分危害很大。

Other recommendations are to regularly replace the rubber seal, to double check that the pressure valve is clean (calcium deposits can obstruct it) and tightly attached, and to clean the filter at the bottom of the top chamber (a screwdriver can be used to safely remove it). A vinegar and water solution can also occasionally used to remove mineral deposits – this is done by leaving the solution overnight in the lower chamber.

定期更换橡胶封条、再三检查压力阀的清洁度和紧密度也很重要。也要注意清洁底壶上方的过滤器。可用稀释了的白醋清洁水垢等沉淀物——将稀释了的白醋静置于底壶中隔夜倒出,再用热水清洗。

摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

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摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)摩卡壶是也门摩卡人发明的么?来自意大利的Marco第一个不同意!(中英双语)

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